The transformation of energy production from coal, oil and natural gas to green technologies is rapid at the moment. In Denmark, green energy production comprises more than 45 % of the total energy production. But the green transition requires that there are enough raw materials to produce all the wind turbines, solar cells, electric cars, heat pumps, batteries etc. – and at an affordable price. Some of these key raw materials are considered critical by the EU and only a very small part of them can be obtained from the circular material circuit.
At MIMA, we prepare analyses of the market development for rare earth metals in the EU, among other things.
MIMA makes scenario-based analyses, which among other things uncover the raw material needs of the future and whether the green transition can be implemented without the price of raw materials increasing.
MIMA makes assessments of the criticality of raw materials – i.e. their economic and societal significance combined with the degree of security of supply. The assessments can help avert the financial consequences of a structural raw material deficiency and are therefore relevant at both business level, national level and EU level.
Value chain analyses
MIMA carries out analyses of the raw materials’ value chain, from investigation to production, to explain how market mechanisms, legislation and dynamic conditions affect the outcome of certain investments and political decisions.
About the green transition
Green transition creates demand for green raw materials. In particular, three technological solutions for the green transition increase the demand for raw materials:
The number of wind farms is growing worldwide. This increases the consumption of raw materials for wind turbines.
For instance, 2,400 tonnes of concrete, 600 tonnes of steel, 18 tonnes of copper and 1 ton of rare earth metals are used to make one 6 GW land-based wind turbine.
Silicon, boron, titanium, gallium, aluminium, copper and silver are used to make solar cells, and demand is growing rapidly.
An increasing demand for batteries for e.g. electric cars means an increasing demand for lead, cobalt, lithium and graphite in particular.
In line with the green transition, the international competition for green raw materials increases, and the consequence is a significant supply risk. MIMA has analysed the expected market development for rare earth metals in the EU (in the EURARE Report), which are key raw materials for many of the green technologies.
Flow of raw materials to various technologies in the green transition
The flow of 25 raw materials to 9 different technologies that are part of the green transition. The raw materials are categorised according to EU’s assessment of how risky the security of supply is. The illustration shows the complexity and risk that is behind the green transition.